Tillandsia tequendamae (formerly Vriesea)
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Tillandsia tequendamae (formerly Vriesea)
Species, Ecuador.
Ian Hook 08/04, BSA meeting.
Plant/photo Chris Larson. Collected Michael Ferenczi.
Photo Peter Tristram 11/11. Plant Michael Ferenczi.
Photo Terence Davis 06/10. Plant Michael Ferenczi.
Bruce Dunstan 09/13, habitat shot by Emilio Constantino.
Stephen Haines 09/13 as tequendamae, but see comments below.
D. tequendamae
DD. cylindrica

Derek Butcher 23/09/13 ... "To me you have a fine specimen of TV porphyrocraspeda (Vr. cylindrica). See attached key."
Peter Tristram 23/09/13 ... "Just for the record Steveís very attractive, smallish, erect-spiked plant was named by Harry as tequendamae who assured me not all populations are pendant."
Derek Butcher 24/09/13 ... "But look at the key by Gilmartin below. She does not mention whether the inflorescence was hanging or not and as far as I am aware Harry did not dispute her Monograph on Ecuador regarding these two species. I ask all of you to critically look at the shape of the primary bracts."

Key by Gilmartin...
8. Inflorescence compound
- 10. Primary bracts orbicular (D), apices rounded, or apiculate, at least the lower spikes obscured at antithesis........9. Vr. tequendamae
- 10. Primary bracts ovate to triangular (DD), apices acute-attenuate, spikes exposed in part throughout inflourescence.
- - 11. Leaves 40-70cm long, inflorescence erect at antithesis, usually 20cm long or more.........10. Vr. cylindrica
- - 11. Leaves to 35cm long or if longer, then petals with crenulated margins, inflorescence curving at antithesis, 8-18cm long or tripinnate and to 45cm long
(Ed. Note that Vr. cylindrica is now Tillandsia porphyrocraspeda.)

John Olsen 12/18
Bruce Dunstan 09/19
John Olsen ... "Not thriving in my environment but flowering."
Alfonso Trudu ... "The locality of Tequendama, presumably related to this plant, is at over 2500 m above sea level to the west of Bogota, in Colombia. Maybe the difference in elevation between Brisbane and Tequendama could be a contributing factor why your plant is only just flowering. However, I still believe it is a great success that you made the tequendamae flower. Let's hope for some pups."
Peter Tristram ... "The one in cultivation came from near Quito in Ecuador and is quite different to the tequendamae in Colombia. Itís a regular bloomer and tolerant of extremes. Most TV species grow above 2000 m so require more shade in summer to avoid heat stress. If you search tequendamae in the BCR youíll find one entry and Iíll be discussing this erect-spiked plant and more of these species in my talk. Soon thereíll be another rego under appenii too."
Bruce Dunstan ... "Peter Tristram's plant flowering. Some of the bracts are oval and then some further up the scape are more pointed. Joys of taxonomy. This plant seems to enjoy my conditions, thankfully we are yet to have the extreme spring heat."
Bruce Dunstan 11/20 ex MF ex Ecuador
Bruce Dunstan, in situ Santander
Bruce Dunstan ... "This plant was collected by Michael Ferenczi in Ecuador and does well in Brisbane considering the lack of elevation. Thankfully this Spring has been very mild with nothing over 30 degrees at Nundah.
It is under 50% shade with lots of air movement. In nature you only see them above 2000-2500m where the cooler influence protects them but they can often be in full sun at that elevation. Attached are some growing near Velez on the eastern range in Santander."
Peter Tristram 10/20
Peter Tristram ... "I had a couple in bloom when I got home in mid October.
In my experience Its best to give it shelter, especially from hot summer sun, though itís pretty hardy for an altitude plant. Itís an epiphyte too, so shade suits it. This form, imho, keys close to porphyrocraspeda as well and is quite different to the tequendamae seen in many parts of Colombia, always above 2300 m. The Colombian tequendamae are damned hard to grow in cultivation too, I gather."
Ray Clark 01/21 upright spike
Ray Clark ... "This plant flowered for me over a week ago now and I'm quite pleased as (TVs) such as this one do not traditionally do too well here in SA."
Peter Tristram ... "Good job! Either your microclimate work is brilliant or this baby is tough as! I think the former. Why it's labelled tequendamae, a usually pendant species described from near BogotŠ in Colombia, is another story that Iím sure you know!"
Chris Larson ... "I think Ray has done well with this in the hot dry Adelaide winds. However, this form is the hardiest for me. I have a shadecloth area facing east at home(Melbourne). This plant grows easily sitting out past the eaves, so it doesn't mind the cold, winter rains."
Ray Clark ... "I have avoided TVs such as this plant for a while now as I dispatched quite a few to the green bin before I got a handle on things. This plant, like brachycaulos and many other thin leaved Tills, spends winter in my wife's Cacti house. There's no heating, just plenty of airflow and protection from the excessive wind and rain. Summer is a completely different affair for me and that's where paying attention to micro-climate as Peter has implied seems to have payed off. Listening to Chris I might re-appraise my thinking this coming winter, but maybe not too much"

Tillandsia tequendamae Andre, Enum. Bromel. 8. 13 Dec. 1888, see Grant in Phytologia 75(2): 170-175. 1993
Vriesea tequendamae (Andre) L. B. Smith, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 29: 444. 1951.
Tillandsia cygnea Mez & Sodiro, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 11.4: 1128. 1904. Type. Valley of Nanegal, Pichincha, Ecuador, Sodiro 19-8 (holotype B, B photo 1191/11-12), Apr 1902.

Desc from S&D p1255-6
Plant stemless, flowering 7-8 dm high.
Leaves 5-6 dm long, densely cinereous-lepidote;
Sheaths broadly ovate, to 17 cm long, dark castaneous;
Blades very narrowly triangular, 4-7 cm wide at base.
Scape decurved, stout;
Scape-bracts densely imbricate, slenderly laminate.
Inflorescence densely bipinnate, slenderly cylindric, 2-4 dm long;
Primary bracts like the scape-bracts but the upper ones bladeless, the lower imbricate and largely covering the spikes, orange, densely lepidote at apex;
Spikes sessile, lanceolate, 4-7 cm long, complanate, 6-10-flowered;
Rhachis broadly alate.
Floral bracts densely imbricate, ovate, acute, 22 mm long, equaling or shorter than the sepals, carinate, coriaceous, even, glabrous, orange;
Flowers subsessile.
Sepals elliptic, acute, to 20 mm long, ecarinate, even, glabrous;
Petals linear, 4 cm long, green with blue margins, bearing 2 linear largely adnate scales; Stamens exserted.
Type. Andre 1355 (holotype K, GH photo), Falls of Tequendama, Cundinamarca, Colombia, Feb 1876.
DISTRIBUTION. Saxicolous and epiphytic in woods, 1200-3100 m alt, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru.
COLOMBIA. MAGDALENA: Pueblo Bello, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 16 Aug 1946, Foster & Smith 1453 (GH). NORTE DE SANTANDER: Culaga Valley, Tapata, Toledo, Mar 1927, Killip & Smith 20177 (GH, US). ANTIOQUIA: Boqueron to San Cristobal, 2 Jun 1948, Barkley, Duran & Correa 100 (COL, US). CUNDINAMARCA: Falls of Tequendama, Feb 1876, Andri 1355 bis (K, abnormal ?); San Cristobal, Jul 19l7 , Ariste-Joseph A-112 (US); El Chico, Macizo de Bogota, 1 Jun 1939, Cuatrecasas 5253 (COL); 11 Oct 1946, Foster 1840 (COL, GH); 30 Nov 1952, Humbert, Idrobo & Jaramillo 27517 (P). CAUCA: Mount Purace, Jun 1922, Killip 6698 (GH). NARINO: San Francisco, 26 Nov 1946, Foster 2264 (COL, GH). PUTUMAYO: Sibundoy, 29 Ju1 1963, Bristo1 1280 (US). VENEZUELA. MERIDA: Mucuqui, 8 Dec 1952, Bernardi 249 (MER). TACHlRA: Villa Paez to Tama, May 1967, Steyermark & Dunsterville 98320 (US, VEN). ECUADOR. CANAR: km 85, Cuenca to Guayaquil, 13 Aug 1965, Gilmartin 1165 (US). Loja: km 38, Catamayo to Loja, 10 Aug 1965, Gilmartin 1131 (US).
PERU. AMAZONAS, Chachapoyas: Molinopampa-Diosan pass, 8 Aug 1962, Wurdack 1649 (US).

Detail from Gilmartin 1972
9. Vriesea tequendamae (Andre) L. B. Smith, 1951 (Contrb. U. S. Nat. Herb. vol. 29, no. 10) p. 444; Smith, 1957, p. 184, fig. 51; Wurdack, 1964, p. 115, photo.
Tillandsia tequendamae Andre, 1888 (Enumeration Bromel.) p. 8; Andre, 1889, pp. 103-104, pl. 36.
PLANT ca. 50 cm tall, from erect rosette;
LEAVES 40-60 cm long, outer¨most leaves shorter, to 7.5 cm long, blades 4.5-7.0 cm wide, narrowly triangular, densely gray-lepidote throughout, apex attenuate to filiform,
sheath 7.0-15.0 cm long by 6.0-8.5 cm wide, dark reddish brown, conspicuous:
SCAPE ca. 5-6 mm in diameter, exceeded by leaf-rosette, slightly to greatly curving;
SCAPE-BRACTS 15-50 cm long by ca. 4.0 cm wide with long filiform blade, imbricate throughout, sheaths erect, blades spreading, red-dish-brown;
INFLORESCENCE 20-40 cm long by 5.0-6.0 cm wide, bipinnate or tripinnate and with two nearly equal digitate branches, dense, cylindric, curving, glabrous;
PRIMARY BRACTS 3.5-4.5 cm long by ca. 5.0 cm wide, orbicular, apex rounded to apiculate, coriaceous, imbricate;
SPIKES 2.5-3.5 cm long by 1.8-2.0 cm wide, ca. 15 per inflorescence, erect, ca. 1.5-2.0 cm apart, having 4 to 10 flowers per spike, sessile;
FLORAL BRACTS 2.2-2.4 cm long by ca. 1.8 cm wide, erect, imbricate, ovate, apex acute, carinate, coriaceous, not nerved, reddish to orange when alive, glabrous without and within;
SEPALS 1.8-2.0 cm long by 0.9-1.0 cm wide, ovate-elliptic, acute, scarcely nerved, glabrous without and within;
PETALS 3.5-4.0 cm long with two inconspicuous scales ca. 1.1 cm long from petal base, green;
CAPSULE ca. 3.0 cm long, distance between flowers ca. 6 mm.
MATERIAL EXAMINED: Espinosa E 355 (CH) epiphytic, Cajanuma south of Loja, Prov. Loja, ca. 2400 m, 7 May 1948; AJC 1131 (US) strongly windswept area, dwarf forest and cloud forest, all branches densely covered with leafy liverworts, tank of bromel filled with water and spongy mass of detritus, km 38 Catamayo-Loja, Prov. Loja, ca. 2500 m, 10 Aug. 1965.
NOTES: From a brief perusal of herbarium specimens of this species one might suspect that it would be adapted especially well to desiccation because of the densely, moderately appressed lepidote, coriaceous leaves. However, it seems to also thrive in very moist areas where the air circulation is abundant such as on windswept knolls or near water falls.

Detail from Gilmartin 1972
10. Tillandsia cygnea Mez and Sodiro, 1904 (Bull. Herb. Boiss, series 2, vol. 4)p. 1128; Mez, 1935, p. 483.
PLANT ca. 65 cm tall;
LEAVES 35-50 cm long, blades 3.5 cm wide, triangular, densely lepidote, sheath, ca. 14 cm long by 9.0 cm wide;
SCAPE decurved, much shorter than leaves;
SCAPE-BRACTS imbricate throughout;
INFLORESCENCE 25-30 cm long by 3.5-5.5 cm in diameter, bipinnate, dense, curving to erect, narrowly cylindric;
PRIMARY BRACTS to 5.5 cm long, mostly as long as or longer than spikes;
SPIKES 5.0-8.0 cm long by 2.0-2.5 cm wide at anthesis, having 6 to 9 flowers per spike, erect, stipe minimal with 1 to 2 sterile bracts;
FLORAL BRACTS 2.5-3.5 cm long by ca. 1.6 cm wide, carinate, ovate-elliptic, erect, imbricate, scarcely nerved, glabrous without and within, apex red;
SEPALS ca. 2.5-3.0 cm long, elliptic, broadly acute, not nerved, free;
PETALS 4.5-6.0 cm long, green, erect, stamens much exserted.
MATERIAL EXAMINED: Sodiro 19b (B, TYPE; US, photo) valley Nanegal, Prov. Pichincha; AJG 1165 (US) terrestrial, cloud forest, km 85 Cuenca-Guayaquil, common, Prov. Canar, ca. 2800 m, 13 Aug. 1965.
NOTES: Contrary to Mez's (1935) description, the sepals are 2.5-3.0 cm long, not 2.3 cm long.

Detail from Mez 1935
72. T. cygnea Mez et Sodiro in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2, ser. IV. (1904) 1128.
Statura conspicua. Folia ad 0.5 m longa, super vaginam usque ad 45 mm lata, inde in apicem longe subulato-acutum persensim angustata, coriacea, dense pallido-lepidota cinerea Scapus validus, ex erecto decurvus, quam folia multo brevior, dense vaginis omnibus in laminas longas sed angustas cinereas productis involutus. Inflorescentia aubmultiflora, pendula, dense 2-pinnatim panniculata, ad 0.3 m longa et 33 mm diam, metiens, anguste cylindrica, utrinque acuta; bracteis primariis omnibus spicas subaequantibus vel paullo superantibus, stricte erectis sese imbricantibus, subcoriaceis, dorso appresse lepidotulis, laevibus, superioribus saltem ex ovato-elliptico subrotundatis, ad 55 mm longis; spicis axi dense pinnatim insertis, flabellatis, 6-9-floris, sessilibus, stricte erectis, vix inter bracteas primarias emergentibus, subellipticis, bene compressis, ad 53 mm longis et 28 mm latis, apice breviter acutis; bracteis florigeris imbricatis, carinatis, apice haud manifestius, incurvis, laevibus, glabris, rigidulis, ad 20 mm longis, quam sepala manifeste brevioribus. Flores suberecto-erecti, certe 45 mm vel paullo ultra longi; sepalis liberis, subcoriaceis, ellipticis, anguste rotundatis, laevibus, 23 mm longis. Petala sepalis 17 mm longiora, staminibus superata.
Ecuador: im Tale Nanegal (Sodiro n. 19b).

Key by Gilmartin 1972
13. Floral bracts to 3.5 cm long, nerved, inflorescence glabrous, often bright orange
. 14. Sepals 1,8-2.0 cm long, leaf-blades 4.5-7.0 cm wide, petals 3.5-4.0 cm long. => Vriesea tequendamae
. 14. Sepals 2.5-3,0 cm long, leaf-blades ca. 4.5 cm wide, petals 4.5-6.0 cm long => T. cygnea

Updated 11/01/21