Tillandsia pseudo-floribunda Gouda, sp. nov. Die Brom 1: 23-28. 2018
A Tillandsia floribunda like species, but taller in most parts. The spikes are (4-)6-15cm long, linear-lanceolate to linear, spreading (vs. 2-3 cm, ovate-lanceolate, slightly divergent), (5-)8-11 flowered (vs. 5-7), sepals narrowly rounded, 14 mm long (vs. apiculate, 9.5-11 mm), petals to 25 mm long, ca.6 mm connate and adnate to the basal part of the antesepalous filaments (vs. ca. 20 mm long, free).
Type: Peru, Depto. Cajamarca, Prov. Contumaza, district Chilete. Leg. Juan Garcia s.n., 2010, cultivated at the University Utrecht Botanic Gardens with number 2014GR00567 flowered June 2014 (holotype U, isotype USM).
Plant acaulescent, flowering ca. 50 cm tall, subdense, with many leaves, forming an open rosette.
Leaves polystichous, fleshy, ca. 35 cm long, shorter than the inflorescence.
Sheaths small, indistinguishable from the blades, stiff-coriaceous, oblong with sudden widened base, not inflated, ca. 3 cm long, 2-3.5cm wide, with membranaceous margins in lower part only, very densely lepidote to glabrescent ca. 1cm from base on both sides, with subappressed ferruginous and locally cinereous scales, brown and with a castaneous band 1 cm from base.
Blades divergent to slightly recurving, somewhat stiff and fleshy-coriaceous, slightly channeled, very narrowly triangular, 34-40 cm long, 1.5-1.8 cm wide, attenuate, pungent, very densely lepidote, on both sides, abaxially with subappressed and adaxiaily appressed whitish and brown centered scales, adaxiaily cinereous green and abaxially more silvery white.
Inflorescence terminal but already with shoots at the base of the inflorescence at anthesis, 40 cm long, sub-dense, once-branched of ca. 12 polystichously arranged branches; fertile part 10.5 cm long, 12 cm wide, open.
Peduncle elongate, nearly wholly covered by bracts, erect, 30 cm long, 6 mm in diameter, glabrous.
Peduncle-bracts erect, the lower ones foliaceous, densely imbricate, stiff coriaceous, the upper ones oblong-elliptic, triangular-acuminate, much exceeding the internodes, very densely lepidote.
Axis short but exposed, stout, straight, bluntly corrugated, sparsely lepidote, green.
Primary-bracts spreading with the branches, remote, coriaceous, like the upper peduncle bracts, soon becoming much smaller, oblong-elliptic, the lower acuminate or soon acute, exceeding or equalling the stipe of the branches, very densely lepidote, cinereous grey and reddish in lower margins.
Stipe of the branches indistinct or very short.
Spikes divergent to spreading (nearly to a right angle), densely and distichously (5-)8-11(-26) flowered (11 in terminal spike), strongly complanate, linear-lanceolate to linear, acute, (+-)6-15 cm 1ong, with 2(-3) sharply carinate cinereous sterile bracts at the base; rachis hidden, stout, nearly straight, excavated next to the flowers, glabrous.
Floral-bracts suberect, imbricate, stiff-coriaceous, finely nerved near the base, carinate to bicarinate in lower third, triangular-ovate, with hyaline margins, narrowly rounded or obtuse, slightly incurved, 13 mm long, 10 mm wide, three times as long as the internodes, exceeded by the sepals, the lower sparsely lepidote, soon glabrous abaxially, lustrous red.
Flowers contiguous, 2.7 cm long; receptacle short, 2 mm 1ong, bicarinate.
Sepals stiff subcoriaceous, smooth, sub-elliptic, narrowly rounded, 14 mm long, 4.5-5 mm wide, with broad hyaline margins, abaxially glabrous and sparcely punctulate lepidote adaxially in the center, green tinged red at the apex, the adaxial ones distinct from the abaxial ones and sharply carinate, adaxially distinctly for 5 mm connate.
Petals fleshy, with divergent blade toward the apex, narrowly ligulate, 18-25 mm 1ong, 3.5-4 mm wide (2.5 mm at the base), connate to each other and adnate to the filaments for 6 mm, rounded and emarginate. Stamens exceeding the pistil, emerging from the throat of the corolia.
Filaments narrow strap shaped and flaccid, straight (not plicate), all equal in length, 1.6 cm long, antesepalous ones 6-7mm adnate to the petals (antepetalous ones only 2 mm), whitish to hyaline.
Anthers dorsifixed, at about one fourth from base, sub-linear, apiculate and with bilobed base, 5 mm long, pale yellow.
Pollen grains cream colored.
Pistil 1.7 cm long.
Ovary pyriform, 4.5 mm long (2 mm wide), tapering into the style, green.
Stigma week conduplicate, papiliose, barely wider than the style, slightly unequal in length.
This species resembles Tillandsia floribunda Kunth (1816), but has much thicker, stiffer and longer leaves, more elongated spreading linear-lanceolate spikes, subdense on a visible axis (vs. dense slightly divergent ovate-lanceolate spikes, axis wholly covered), the floral bracts are less dense and reddish to green at the apex (vs. very dense and purple, including the apex). The description given in Smith & Downs (1977) is probably including characteristics of this new species. A remarkable feature is the connate petals that are for 6 mm adnate to the antesepalous filament. This has not been seen before in Tillandsia, a feature common in the genus Vriesea, Mezobromelia and Guzmania. This has been observed in the flowers of several specimen from Knize, but should be checked in material from Ecuador to confirm that this is a constant feature.
The species was also tested by Michael Barfuss in Vienna (WU) and shows its position next to and in the Tillandsia floribunda clade, confirming its relation to this species.
In northern Peru, at the western slopes of the Andes, this species grows epiphytically on small trees in an open dry mountain forest area at about 1200 m elevation. It occurs in low numbers together with Tillandsia straminea Kunth (1816), T. disticha Kunth (r8r6) and Racinaea multiflora (Benth.) M. A. Spencer & L.B.Sm. (1993).
In southern Ecuador, in the province Loja, east of Catacocha it grows in about similar conditions, but slightly lower elevation and in a more humid environment. It grows in denser and larger trees, together with Racinaea decipiens (Andre) Gouda & Manzan (2017), Tillandsia espinosae L.B.Sm. (1951), T. barclayana Baker (1887), an epiphytical T. tectorum E.Morren (1877) and cacti as well as with an interesting epiphytical Pitcairnia with very narrow leaves.
The epithet 'pseudo-floribunda' is a combination 'pseudo' (Gr. 'false') and the epithet 'floribunda', 'the false Tillandsia floribunda', because it was probably confused with this species in the past.
Other material studied
N. Peru, Reg. Cajamarca, Prov. Contumaza, district Chilete, rd. (PE rNF) Chilete to Contumaza, 1173 m elevation. R. Fernandez & E.J. Gouda provisional number (F#4639.) 30-11-2015 (USM, U); S. Ecuador, Prov. Loja, Rd 35, Loja - Macara, passed Catacocha, 1096m elevation. J. Manzanares, E.J.Gouda & J. Raack provisional number F#9900. 17-06-2015 (QCNE, U).